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Jøder

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  • Postkortforside

    Anmeldelse. Mandy Robotham har skrevet et kulørt, feministisk drama om journalister i Berlin i årene før 2. verdenskrig. Mandy Robotham følger den nyuddannede journalist Georgie Young da hun i 1938 rejser til Berlin som udenrigskorrespondent for Londonavisen The Chronicle sammen med sin kollega Max Spender. Der er drama for hele orkesteret med kærlighed, nazister, jødeforfølgelse, sammenhold og bedrag. Grafik fra bogen forside af Stephen Mulcahey.

  • uortodoks

    Anmeldelse. Uortodoks er en erindringsbog af Deborah Feldman, der blev født ind i det ultraortodokse jødiske miljø i Williamsburg, New York. Deborah voksede op hos sine jødiske, hasidiske bedsteforældre, hvis liv og hverdag var dikteret af strenge religiøse regler for, hvad man måtte tænke, sige, spise og gøre. Du har måske set filmatiseringen på Netflix – hvis ikke så gør det, men som altid, så er bogen filmen langt overlegen.

  •  exodusbogforside

    Anmeldelse. Deborah Feldman er kendt som kvinden, der brød ud af et sekterisk jødisk miljø i Brooklyn i New York. I serien Uortodoks på Netflix følger man hendes opvækst og kamp for at bryde ud og i sidste ende flygte til Berlin. I bogen ”Exodus” fortæller Deborah Feldman om årene efter hun forlod sekten i Brooklyn, etablerede sig som forfatter og opsøgte sine rødder i Europa – til hun ender i Berlin.

  • klezmer

    Foto: Kotoviski photograph by Henryk Kotowski / Wikimedia/ (CC BY-SA 3.0)

    Klezmer og Jiddisch kan du høre i Berlin. Jiddisch tales af omkring 3 millioner jøder i hele verden. Det har tyske rødder og opstod i Tyskland for omkring 1000 år siden, som en variant af tiutsch (deutsch). Sproget skrives med sin egen variant af det hebraiske. Det tyske islæt er tydeligt og når man hører det talt tænker man "hov, det forstod jeg" - for derefter at tabe tråden helt igen. I klezmer musikken kan du lægge øre til Jiddisch.

  • jodiskemuseum

    Det jødiske museum i Berlin (Jüdisches Museum Berlin) dækker 1000 års tysk jødisk histoire. Det lå oprindeligt i Oranienbrugerstrasse, men blev lukket af nazisterne i år 1938. Museet er placeret i en meget speciel bygning fra 2001. Bygningen alene er et besøg værd. Den er lavet i zig-zag og bliver i folkemunde kaldet "blitz" (lynet).

  • Mindesmærket for de myrdede jøder i Europa ligger i centrum af Berlin. Mindesmærket er det central Holocaust mindesmærke i Tyskland - til minde om de næsten 6 millioner myrdede jøder.

  • Anne Frank passport photo May 1942

    Foto: Anne Franks passbillede. Ukendt fotograf. Public Domain.

    Anne Frank. De fleste kender historien om Anne Frank, den jødiske pige der gemte sig på loftet sammen med sin familie, da nazisterne kom til Amsterdam. I de måneder nazisterne rumsterede skrev den lille pige dagbog og gemte den. Hun døde i KZ lejren, men hendes dagbog overlevede og fortæller historien lige ud af landevejen. Er du i Amsterdam kan man idag besøge huset, hvor hun gemte sig. Er du i Berlin kan du besøge Anne Frank Zentrum

  • blindevarksted

    Foto: Fra Otto Weidts Blindeværksted. Otto Weidt havde jøder ansat i sit værksted i Berlin under krigen, og han reddede flere fra at ende i koncentrationslejr. Foto: Stig Yding Sørensen.

    Otto Weidt (1883 - 1947) var Berlins Schindler, der reddede mange jøder fra den visse død i Krakow under krigen. Museum Blindenwerkstatt Otto Weidt fortæller historien om Otto Weidts blindeværksted, hvor Otto Weidt i mellemkrigstiden og under krigen beskæftigede især blinde og døve jøder. 

  • synagoge

    Foto: Gitta Zahn / Flickr / (CC BY 2.0)

    Den jødiske synagoge med den store gyldne kuppel rager op i Oranienburger Strasse. Synagogen blev oprindeligt indviet i 1866 i Byzantisk stil med plads til mere end 3.000 mennesker. Nazistiske bøller angreb synagogen i 1938 og allierede bomber ramte den i 1943. I DDR tiden stod synagogen som ruin, men i 1995 blev den geninviet.

  • Anmeldelse. Søndag den 24. juli 1960 hoppede Jan Rocek sammen med sin kone, svigermor og to små drenge over rælingen på den østtyske færge "Seebad Ahlbeck" og ned i vandet i Gedser Havn, hvorfra de blev reddet i land. Dagen efter gjorde familiens gode venner dem kunststykket efter og sluttede årtiers undertrykkelse af to jødiske familier i Østeuropa. Jesper Clemmensen har skrevet den utrolige historie om tjekkiske familier i det tyvende århundrede: Afhopperne.

  • berlinsynagoge

    Foto: Ansgar Koreng / CC BY-SA 4.0: Den flotte kuppel på den jødiske synagoge i Oranienburgerstrasse i Berlin Mitte er oprindeligt fra 1859.

    Jøder. Der har været jøder i Berlin i mindst 700 år og for hundrede år siden var 5 procent af byens befolkning jøder. I 1933 - 1945 blev jøderne brutalt forfulgt og myrdet af nazisterne. I dag bor der mellem 20 og 30.000 jøder i Berlin.

  • Mad med bønner. Halal eller Kosher?. Langt de fleste danskere er enten kræsne eller omnivorske (altædende) - så længe det er med sovs og kartofler til. Men et mindretal lader sig styre af religiøse overvejelser og spiser helt anderledes. I Berlin kan du prøve det hele. Læs her om, hvad det er, de spiser - og hvor du kan prøve det. Hvis du kun kan spise kosher eller halalmad, så er der også inspiration her.

  • butiksfacadeiBerlin1938

    Foto: Karl H. Paulmann (CC BY 2.0). Das Foto und Beschreibung in Christoph Kreutzmüller; Bjoern Weigel: Kristallnacht? : Bilder der Novemberpogrome 1938 in Berlin. Berlin : Kulturprojekte Berlin, 2013 ISBN 978-3-940231-08-6, S. 44–45 Potsdamer Straße 26. Links im Bild Martha Jacobowitz, ermordet 9. Mai 1942 im KZ Kulmhof

    Den 9. november 1938 smadrede nationalsocialister jødiske kirkegårde, synagoger og butikker. Næsten 7.500 forretninger blev ødelagt og 267 synagoger blev brændt. Jøder blev standset på gaden eller hevet ud af deres hjem og 91 blev tævet ihjel, og 30.000 jødiske mænd blev samlet i KZ-lejre i løbet af den 10. november. Gaderne var oversåede med glasskår fra ruderne og de glimtede som krystaller. Deraf krystalnatten.

  • jodelovA

    Foto: Manfred Brückels, "Berlin-Schöneberg, Bayerisches Viertel. Denkmal zur Erinnerung an die Unterdrückung der Juden 1933-1945. Tafel über erzwungene Vornamen auf Höhe der Münchener Straße 34–38", (CC BY-SA 2.0 DE). Skaleret.

    Jødelovgivningen. Den 15. September 1935 vedtog den nazistiske regering to anti-jødiske love under nazipartiets dage i Nürnberg. Det var stærkt indgribende love.og her blev sporene til Holocaust lagt ud. I Bayrisches Viertel i Berlin kan du se mange af de absurde jødelove, som fulgte efter Nürnberg lovene. Nürnberg-lovene blev det retslige grundlag, som nazisterne anvendte til at forfølge jøderne de følgende 10 år.

  • Jødestjernen var en gul davidsstjerne af stof. Nazisterne tvang alle jøder til at bære stjernen synligt på tøjet. I Tyskland skulle alle jøder over 6 år bære den gule ”jødestjerne” synligt på venstre bryst fra 1. september 1941. Hvem der var jøde og hvem der ikke var jøde var fastsat af Nürnberglovenefra 1935.

  • benelton

    Foto: Fra bogens forside

    Anmeldelse. I 1920 bliver to drenge født samme dag i Berlin. Den ene er jøde, den anden er adopteret og arier. De vokser op som tvillinger. Paulus er klog, rolig og analyserende. Otto er naiv, vild og impulsiv. De to brødre slås og konkurrerer mod hinanden, ikke mindst i kampen om den smukke Dagmar, som de begge er dybt forelskede i. Men i 30'ernes og 40'ernes malmstrøm af historiske begivenheder undgår ingen at blive revet med. Det sker også for Paulus, Otto og Dagmar.

  • S-bahnstation Grünewald i Berlins sydvestlige hjørne ligger perron nr. 17 (Gleis 17). Fra oktober 1941 til februar 1945 depoterede nazisterne mere end 50.000 jøder har fra perronen med godstog direkte til udryddelseslejrene. ”Gleis 17” er et mindested om de mørke tider og vedligeholdes i et samarbejde med Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf og Deutsche Bahn.

  • mINCOFORSIDE

    Anmeldelse. Romanen ”Bitre urter” af den hollandske forfatter Marga Minco skildrer gennem en piges øjne kort og rammende en jødisk families skæbne under naziregimet i Holland. Lige ud af landevejen fortæller en jødisk pige om sin familie fra tyskernes indtrængen i 1940 til familiens endeligt. Foto fra bogens forside.

  • kinderweb

    Foto: Frank Meisler's Kindertransport memorial (2008) ved Friedrichstrasse Banegård, Berlin. Rettigheder: artwork: w:de:Frank Meisler ; picture: user:Concord. Licens: (CC BY-SA 4.0)

    Anmeldelse. I 1939 flygtede Jonathan Lichtensteins far, Hans, fra det nazistiske Berlin med den allersidste Kindertransport til England. Det var en organiseret redningsindsats for overvejende jødiske børn, som blev fragtet med tog ud af et Tyskland på randen af krig. ”Skyggen fra Berlin” er en bevægende dokumentarisk fortælling om, hvordan man som familie kan leve videre med skyggerne fra Anden Verdenskrig.