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1945: Tyskerne overgiver sig og overgiver sig og overgiver sig

Den anden verdenskrig sluttede i Europa da tyskerne underskrev deres betingelsesløse overgivelse om aftenen den 9 maj 1945 kl. 00:16 sammen med repræsentanter for de "The Allied Expeditionary Force", den røde hær samt amerikanske og franske vidner. Krigen var slut. Men faktisk blev der skrevet under hele 4 gange i perioden 2. maj 1945 til 5. juni 1945. Tre af gangene i Berlin.

surrender

Foto; Kapitulationen underskrives i Karlshorst

Mange overgivelser

Forvirrende nok var en tidligere version af teksten også blevet underskrevet i Reims i Frankring om morgenen den 7 maj. I vesten blev den 8 maj kendt som "Victory in Europe Day" - og i Sovjetunionen fejrer man sejrsdagen den 9. maj. Og endnu mere forvirrende kom der endnu en tekst den 5. juni.

I Berlin havde man allerede overgivet sig 2. maj. Når man siger "Vi overgiver os" er det ikke lige gyldigt hvilket sprog man taler, hvor man siger det, hvad der følger med og hvem man siger det til. Alt det skulle på plads. Et lille overblik:

  • 2. maj 1945 i Berlin-Tempelhof - Berlin overgiver sig. Læs mere her.
  • 7. maj 1945 i Reims - tyskerne overgiver sig med frist 8. maj
  • 9. maj 1945 i Berlin-Karlshorst - tyskerne overgiver sig igen med frist 8. maj 1945
  • 5. juni 1945 i Berlin-Wendenschloss - de allierede understreger at de nu bestemmer

Og så har vi ikke talt alle del-overgivelserne med, som da Montgommery meddelte, at de tyske styrker i Holland, Norge og Danmark overgav sig. Det var den 4. maj 1945 kl. 20:30 at BBC London gav beskeden - men kapitulationen var først gyldig fra den 5. maj 1945 kl. 8:00 om morgenen.

Hvorfor al det rod med datoerne?

Kapitulationen i Reims

Den 6 maj 1945 mødte generaloberst Alfred Jodl, generaladmiral von Friedeburg og major Oxenius op i det vestlige allieredes hovedkvarter i nordfranske Reims og foreslog en separatfred med de vestallierede.

Det afslog general Eisenhower, hvorefter den nye tyske leder, Dönitz, autoriserede den tyske delegation til at underskrive en general kapitulation. Den 7. maj 1945 overgav tyskerne sig betingelsesløst med frist til 8. maj kl. 23.01. Det er det rigtigste formelle tidspunkt for krigens afslutning.

Underskriverne var Eisenhower, Dönitz, Jodl, von Friedeburg and Susloparov. Jodl sagde i en kort tale på tysk, at han nu overgav det tyske folks skæbne i sejrherrernes hænder - men han blev ikke oversat og ikke kommenteret på. Eisenhower selv viste sig ikke til underskrivelsen af snørklede protokolære årsager.

Den tyske radiostation, Reichssender Flensburg, var det første tyske medie, som meldte at nu var det slut.  Lutz von Schwerin-Krosigk bragte nyheden. Han var et ledende medlem af Dönitz-regeringen, der sad i Flensburg.

Russerne vil have underskriften i Berlin 

Det var ikke acceptabelt for Sovjetunionen: De protesterede allerede 6 timer efter underskriften i Reims. Hvorfor var underskriften i Reims den 7 maj 1945 ikke god nok?

Sovjetunionen mente der var en lang række fejl:

  • at teksten afveg fra det aftalte,
  • at den russer der havde underskrevet, Susloparov, ikke var autoriseret
  • at selve underskrivelsen skulle være en unik historisk begivenhed, som til fulde anerkendte Sovjets andel af kampen
  • at det ikke kunne foregå på befriet område som Reims, men burde foregå i Berlin. Der hvor agressoren kom fra.

For Sovjetunionen var det ikke nok at tyskerne havde overgivet sig betingelsesløst i Frankrig. Det var for abstrakt, for langt væk, ude af Sovjets kontrol. Og så var det måske også et spørgsmål om, hvad der efterfølgende skulle skrives i historiebøgerne.

Sovjetunionen havde lidt langt, langt de største tab. Måske det var fair nok, at de stod forrest. At de selv havde medvirket til at give Hitler blod på tanden til angrebet mod Polen ved at indgå en hemmelig pagt - det var ikke en del af skåltalerne. Slet ikke i Sovjetunionen, hvis man havde planlagt en tilværelse som pensionist. Det var angrebet på Polen som fik Frankrig og England til at erklære krig.

Det var allerede klart, at Susloparov ikke var autoriseret. Han kunne deltage i forhandlingerne, men kunne ikke underskrive. Han havde bedt Stalin om tilladelse, men der var ikke kommet besked fra Stalin før underskrivelsen. Susloparov underskrev med det forbehold, at blev hans underskrift ikke godkendt måtte der være en ny ceremoni. Det var de allierede indforståede med.

I Reims lyttede man til Sovjetunionen. Lederne af de vestlige styrker, den amerikanske general Eisenhower, gav Sovjetunionen medhold og forklarede, at underskriften i Reims var et midlertidigt værktøj til at få det tyske militær til at overgive sig betingelsesløst - og at der naturligvis var behov for en mere formel underskriftsceremoni.

Besøger man Reims og de lokaler, hvor underskrivelsen fandt sted, er man ikke tvivl om, at der var her den reelle slutning af krigen fandt sted. Men det var grebet meget praktisk an. Amerikanerne som havde prestigen af at være de første til at modtage kapitulationen kunne storsindet overlade arrangement nummer to til Sovjetunionen. Krigen var slut.

Ceremoni nummer to 9 maj 1945

Den næste underskrift fandt sted i Berlin i forstaden Karlshorst i Berlin i det sovjetiske militære hovedkvarter. Det var mere cerimonielt, og i overenstemmelse med den magt og den sejr, som Sovjetunionen gerne ville fremstille.

Tyskerne havde nu heller ikke helt opgivet ævred. Der blev stadig kæmpet omkring prag og den luftborne evakuering af tyske tropper fra baltikum fortsatte ufortrødent - og den tyske leder, Dönitz, gav ordre til at fortsætte modstanden mod den røde hær for at udnytte 48 timers tænkepause til at frelse tyske soldater fra sovjetisk fangenskab. Det var faktisk tydeligt, at hverken tyskerne eller Sovjetunionen havde tænkt sig at følge beslutningen i Reims.

Så underskrivelsen i Berlin blev i alt hast arrangeret. Eisenhower holdt sig væk, fordi han i rang ville overskygge Marshall Zhukov. Istedet blev hans britiske næstkommanderende Marshal Tedder sendt af sted. Franske General de Gaulle krævede, at hans General de Tassigny skulle underskrive, men Sovjetunionen ville ikke acceptere at mere end tre allierede (inklusive Zhukov) skulle underskrive. Det ville amerikanerne ikke finde sig i, for så var der ikke plads til en amerikansk underskrift for General Carl Spatz.

Dokumentet blev skrevet om nogle gange før der blev plads til både en amerikansk og en fransk underskrift på papiret. Det var egentlig aftalt, at der skulle skrives under den 8. maj, men dokumenthysteriet betød, at papirerne til underskrift først var klar lige efter midnat den 9. maj 1945.

Det blev krævet at tyskerne, at der blev underskrevet for både hær, flåde og luftvåben. Det blev Feltmarskal Wilhelm Keitels lod at skrive under for den tyske hær, Admiral von Friedeburg for marinen og General Stumpff for luftwaffe.

Tedder, Tasigny, Spatz fløj indtil Tempelhof og det samme gjorde Keitel, Friedeburg og Stumpff.

Forfatteren Antony Beevor citerer i "Berlin - faldet - 1945" den russiske forfatter Simonov om slutspillet og beskriver, hvordan stabsbilerne hastede fra Tempelhof til Karlshorst. Byens tilstand taget i betragtning har det krævet lidt oprydning at kunne komme hurtigt frem. Lidt før midnat den 8. maj var alle fremme i Karlshorst i den bygning, som tidligere havde været kantinen for det de tyske ingeniørtroppers skole. Der var fotografer overalt.

Da de allierede havde sat sig blev de tyske generaler ført ind. Friedeburg og Stumpff så resignerede ud, mens Keitel forsøgte at virke myndig. De tyske generaler satte sig. De allierede underskrev og Zhukov rejste sig og sagde: "Vi inviterer den tyske delegation til at underskrive kapitulationserklæringen". 

Keitel gjorde tegn til at man kunne bringe ham papirerne, men Zhukov sagde til sin tolk; "Sig, at de skal komme herover for at underskrive papirerne". Tyskerne skrev under og Zhukov bad dem forlade salen. Alle drog et et lettelsens suk og gav hinanden hånden. Der blev fejret til daggry med sang og dans. Der blev skudt i luften over hele byen. Vodka-time (Kilde: Antony Beevor).

Den anden verdenskrig sluttede med underskriften af dokumentet. Der blev underskrevet 9. maj 1945 kl. 00:16. Det tog 4 minutter og var overstået kl 00:20.

Der blev skudt lidt i Böhmen hvor tyske tropper forsøgte at kæmpe deres vej til de allierede istedet for at skulle overgive sig til Sovjetunionen. Armegruppe E i Kroatien kæmpede videre i flere dage mod Titos partisaner. En del lykkedes med at komme til Italien inklusive en del kroatiske kollaboratører. De blev sendt tilbage til Yugoslavien, hvor de øjeblikkeligt blev skudt.

kapitulationsdokumentet

ACT OF MILITARY SURRENDER

1. We the undersigned, acting by authority of the German High Command, hereby surrender unconditionally to the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and simultaneously to the Supreme High Command of the Red Army all forces on land, at sea, and in the air who are at this date under German control.

2. The German High Command will at once issue orders to all German military, naval and air authorities and to all forces under German control to cease active operations at 23.01 hours Central European time on 8 May 1945, to remain in all positions occupied at that time and to disarm completely, handing over their weapons and equipment to the local allied commanders or officers designated by Representatives of the Allied Supreme Commands. No ship, vessel, or aircraft is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their hull, machinery or equipment, and also to machines of all kinds, armament, apparatus, and all the technical means of prosecution of war in general.

3. The German High Command will at once issue to the appropriate commanders, and ensure the carrying out of any further orders issued by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and by the Supreme Command of the Red Army.

4. This act of military surrender is without prejudice to, and will be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed by, or on behalf of the United Nations and applicable to GERMANY and the German armed forces as a whole.

5. In the event of the German High Command or any of the forces under their control failing to act in accordance with this Act of Surrender, the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and the Supreme High Command of the Red Army will take such punitive or other action as they deem appropriate.

This Act is drawn up in the English, Russian and German languages. The English and Russian are the only authentic texts.

Representatives:

tedderzhukovspatzskaaler

  • Soviet Union: Marshal Georgy Zhukov on behalf of the Supreme High Command of the Red Army
  • United Kingdom: Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur William Tedder, as Deputy Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force,
  • United States: General Carl Spaatz, Commanding United States Strategic Air Forces, as witness
  • France: General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, Commanding First French Army, as witness
  • Germany:

tyskedelegationikarlshorst

  • Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel as the Chief of the General Staff of the German Armed Forces (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) and as representative of the army (Heer)
  • General-Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg as Commander-in-Chief of the navy (Kriegsmarine)
  • Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff as the representative of the air force (Luftwaffe)

Selve teksten i dokumentet var forberedt af de allierede i fællesskab næsten et år før. Allerede den 3. januar 1944 var det besluttet, at den tyske overgivelse skulle være betingelsesløs. Alt magt over de tyske territorer var delt mellem sejrherrerne. Der var ingenting, ingenting, til tyskerne.

Det var en særlig pointe, at dokumentet skulle underskrives af hærens overkommando - ikke af politikkerne. Ved slutningen af første verdenskrig førte det til "dolkestødsmyten", da dele af hæren hævdede, at de ikke havde tabt krigen, men at politikkerne havde "meldt dem ud" af krigen som tabere. Men trods den lange forberedelse var teksten altså først klar kl. 00:16 den 9 maj til underskrivelse. Det var nok også sket selvom de havde indledt arbejdet et kvarters tid tidligere den 3. januar 1944.

Man kan besøge det tysk-russiske museum i Berlin-Karlshorst, hvor dokumenterne blev underskrevet den 9. maj om natten. Der kan man også se originale kopier af dokumenterne.

Men lige en ekstra deklaration

Overgivelsen var et militær anliggende. Den 5. juni 1945 offentliggjorde de allierede endnu et dokument: Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany.

Der blev det skåret ud i pap, at Tyskland nu hverken havde en administration eller en regering og at det var de allierede kræfter der bestemt i tyskland. Dönitz havde ellers forsøgt at hævde, at han var leder af Tysklands regering.

Den sidste deklaration blev underskrevet den 5. juni i Berlin-Wendenschloss i Niebergall strasse 20. Mødet blev afholdt af russerne, som nu i en lille måned havde styret Berlin på egen hånd. Dokumentet understregede, at der nu var fire magter involveret i styret af Tyskland: Sovjetunionen, USA, Storbritanien og Frankrig.

Der står nu en tavle i Niebergall strasse med teksten: On 5 June 1945 in the former headquarters of Marshal G. K. Zhukov here, the representatives of the high commands of the Anti-Hitler Coalition signed the Declaration of the defeat of Fascist Germany and the assumption of governmental authority through the four allied states.

Deklarationen står herunder hentet fra wikisource. Den er lidt lang, beklager.

DECLARATION REGARDING THE DEFEAT OF GERMANY AND THE ASSUMPTION OF SUPREME AUTHORITY WITH RESPECT TO GERMANY BY THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.

The German armed forces on land, at sea and in the air have been completely defeated and have surrendered unconditionally and Germany, which bears responsibility for the war, is no longer capable of resisting the will of the victorious Powers. The unconditional surrender of Germany has thereby been effected, and Germany has become subject to such requirements as may now or hereafter be imposed upon her.

There is no central Government or authority in Germany capable of accepting responsibility for the maintenance of order, the administration of the country and compliance with the requirements of the victorious Powers.

It is in these circumstances necessary, without prejudice to any subsequent decisions that may be taken respecting Germany, to make provision for the cessation of any further hostilities on the part of the German armed forces, for the maintenance of order in Germany and for the administration of the country, and to announce the immediate requirements with which Germany must comply.

The Representatives of the Supreme Commands of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the French Republic, hereinafter called the "Allied Representatives," acting by authority of their respective Governments and in the interests of the United Nations, accordingly make the following Declaration:

The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom, and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, hereby assume supreme authority with respect to Germany, including all the powers possessed by the German Government, the High Command and any state, municipal, or local government or authority. The assumption, for the purposes stated above, of the said authority and powers does not effect the annexation of Germany.

The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom, and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, will hereafter determine the boundaries of Germany or any part thereof and the status of Germany or of any area at present being part of German territory.

In virtue of the supreme authority and powers thus assumed by the four Governments, the Allied Representatives announce the following requirements arising from the complete defeat and unconditional surrender of Germany with which Germany must comply:

ARTICLE 1

Germany, and all German military, naval and air authorities and all forces under German control shall immediately cease hostilities in all theatres of war against the forces of the United Nations on land, at sea and in the air.

ARTICLE 2

(a) All armed forces of Germany or under German control, wherever they may be situated, including land, air, anti-aircraft and naval forces, the S.S., S.A. and Gestapo, and all other forces of auxiliary organisations equipped with weapons, shall be completely disarmed, handing over their weapons and equipment to local Allied Commanders or to officers designated by the Allied Representatives.

(b) The personnel of the formations and units of all the forces referred to in paragraph (a) above shall, at the discretion of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Allied State concerned, be declared to be prisoners of war, pending further decisions, and shall be subject to such conditions and directions as may be prescribed by the respective Allied Representatives.

(c) All forces referred to in paragraph (a) above, wherever they may be, will remain in their present positions pending instructions from the Allied Representatives.

(d) Evacuation by the said forces of all territories outside the frontiers of Germany as they existed on the 31st December, 1937, will proceed according to instructions to be given by the Allied Representatives.

(e) Detachments of civil police to be armed with small arms only, for the maintenance of order and for guard duties, will be designated by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 3

(a) All aircraft of any kind or nationality in Germany or German-occupied or controlled territories or waters, military, naval or civil, other than aircraft in the service of the Allies, will remain on the ground, on the water or aboard ships pending further instructions.

(b) All German or German-controlled aircraft in or over territories or waters not occupied or controlled by Germany will proceed to Germany or to such other place or places as may be specified by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 4

(a) All German or German-controlled naval vessels, surface and submarine, auxiliary naval craft, and merchant and other shipping, wherever such vessels may be at the time of this Declaration, and all other merchant ships of whatever nationality in German ports, will remain in or proceed immediately to ports and bases as specified by the Allied Representatives. The crews of such vessels will remain on board pending further instructions.

(b) All ships and vessels of the United Nations, whether or not title has been transferred as the result of prize court or other proceedings, which are at the disposal of Germany or under German control at the time of this Declaration, will proceed at the dates and to the ports or bases specified by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 5

(a) All or any of the following articles in the possession of the German armed forces or under German control or at German disposal will be held intact and in good condition at the disposal of the Allied Representatives, for such purposes and at such times and places as they may prescribe:

(i) all arms, ammunition, explosives, military equipment, stores and supplies and other implements of war of all kinds and all other war materials;
(ii) all naval vessels of all classes, both surface and submarine, auxiliary naval craft and all merchant shipping, whether afloat, under repair or construction, built or building;
(iii) all aircraft of all kinds, aviation and anti-aircraft equipment and devices;
(iv) all transportation and communications facilities and equipment, by land, water or air;
(v) all military installations and establishments, including airfields, seaplane bases, ports and naval bases, storage depots, permanent and temporary land and coast fortifications, fortresses and other fortified areas, together with plans and drawings of all such fortifications, installations and establishments;
(vi) all factories, plants, shops, research institutions, laboratories, testing stations, technical data, patents, plans, drawings and inventions, designed or intended to produce or to facilitate the production or use of the articles, materials, and facilities referred to in sub-paragraphs (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) above or otherwise to further the conduct of war.
(b) At the demand of the Allied Representatives the following will be furnished:

(i) the labour, services and plant required for the maintenance or operation of any of the six categories mentioned in paragraph (a) above; and
(ii) any information or records that may be required by the Allied Representatives in connection with the same.
(c) At the demand of the Allied Representatives all facilities will be provided for the movement of Allied troops and agencies, their equipment and supplies, on the railways, roads and other land communications or by sea, river or air. All means of transportation will be maintained in good order and repair, and the labour, services and plant necessary therefor will be furnished.

ARTICLE 6

(a) The German authorities will release to the Allied Representatives, in accordance with the procedure to be laid down by them, all prisoners of war at present in their power, belonging to the forces of the United Nations, and will furnish full lists of these persons, indicating the places of their detention in Germany or territory occupied by Germany. Pending the release of such prisoners of war, the German authorities and people will protect them in their persons and property and provide them with adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical attention and money in accordance with their rank or official position.

(b) The German authorities and people will in like manner provide for and release all other nationals of the United Nations who are confined, interned or otherwise under restraint, and all other persons who may be confined, interned or otherwise under restraint for political reasons or as a result of any Nazi action, law or regulation which discriminates on the ground of race, colour, creed or political belief.

(c) The German authorities will, at the demand of the Allied Representatives, hand over control of places of detention to such officers as may be designated for the purpose by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 7

The German authorities concerned will furnish to the Allied Representatives:

(a) full information regarding the forces referred to in Article 2 (a), and, in particular, will furnish forthwith all information which the Allied Representatives may require concerning the numbers, locations and dispositions of such forces, whether located inside or outside Germany;

(b) complete and detailed information concerning mines, minefields and other obstacles to movement by land, sea or air, and the safety lanes in connection therewith. All such safety lanes will be kept open and clearly marked; all mines, minefields and other dangerous obstacles will as far as possible be rendered safe, and all aids to navigation will be reinstated. Unarmed German military and civilian personnel with the necessary equipment will be made available and utilized for the above purposes and for the removal of mines, minefields and other obstacles as directed by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 8

There shall be no destruction, removal, concealment, transfer or scuttling of, or damage to, any military, naval, air, shipping, port, industrial and other like property and facilities and all records and archives, wherever they may be situated, except as may be directed by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 9

Pending the institution of control by the Allied Representatives over all means of communication, all radio and telecommunication installations and other forms of wire or wireless communications, whether ashore or afloat, under German control, will cease transmission except as directed by the Allied Representatives.

ARTICLE 10

The forces, ships, aircraft, military equipment, and other property in Germany or in German control or service or at German disposal, of any other country at war with any of the Allies, will be subject to the provisions of this Declaration and of any proclamations, orders, ordinances or instructions issued thereunder.

ARTICLE 11

(a) The principal Nazi leaders as specified by the Allied Representatives, and all persons from time to time named or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied Representatives as being suspected of having committed, ordered or abetted war crimes or analogous offences, will be apprehended and surrendered to the Allied Representatives.

(b) The same will apply in the case of any national of any of the United Nations who is alleged to have committed an offence against his national law, and who may at any time be named or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied Representatives.

(c) The German authorities and people will comply with any instructions given by the Allied Representatives for the apprehension and surrender of such persons.

ARTICLE 12

The Allied Representatives will station forces and civil agencies in any or all parts of Germany as they may determine.

ARTICLE 13

(a) In the exercise of the supreme authority with respect to Germany assumed by the Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom, and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the four Allied Governments will take such steps, including the complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, as they deem requisite for future peace and security.

(b) The Allied Representatives will impose on Germany additional political, administrative, economic, financial, military and other requirements arising from the complete defeat of Germany. The Allied Representatives, or persons or agencies duly designated to act on their authority, will issue proclamations, orders, ordinances and instructions for the purpose of laying down such additional requirements, and of giving effect to the other provisions of this Declaration. All German authorities and the German people shall carry out unconditionally the requirements of the Allied Representatives, and shall fully comply with all such proclamations, orders, ordinances and instructions.

ARTICLE 14

This Declaration enters into force and effect at the date and hour set forth below. In the event of failure on the part of the German authorities or people promptly and completely to fulfill their obligations hereby or hereafter imposed, the Allied Representatives will take whatever action may be deemed by them to be appropriate under the circumstances.

ARTICLE 15

This Declaration is drawn up in the English, Russian, French and German languages. The English, Russian and French are the only authentic texts.

BERLIN, GERMANY, June 5, 1945.


Signed at 1800 hours, Berlin time.

 Kilde:

 

En ide til rejsen?

 

London?

Berlin er dejlig - men det er London også.

Besøg vores nye london-guide.dk - den er snart Danmarks bedste London-guide.

 

"Angrebet" 9. April 1940

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Guide til byer rundt om Berlin
Den tyske krigsmarines hjerte – nu kun ruiner at f...

Den tyske søkrig blev styret fra Berlin fra 1943-45 af overkommandoen for den tyske krigsmarine [OKM]. Kommandocentralen lå ca 30 kilometer nord for Berlin i en skov. Bunkere, kaserne og master beskyttet af flak og maskingeværer. Lidt uklart om bunkerne blev sprængt af tyskerne selv eller af russerne. Men sprængt blev [ ... ]

Krigens spor omkring Berlin